Fraud Prevention Tip: Regularly Monitor and Review Monetary Trends

In some ways this tip is similar to the tip about taking all shortages seriously, but I think that this is broader. If you dip into your Quickbooks or whatever software you use for your accounting, you’ll discover that there are hundreds of reports that your system can generate for you from the top view P&L and Balance Sheet to the nitty gritty item detail by customer.

Understanding your company’s KPIs – or Key Performance Indicators – is a great place to start when seeking the trends that matter to you. However, thinking generally about other numbers in your business, and regularly monitoring them, is a very important exercise.

The beauty of this tip is that you can determine how to run the necessary report you need and then have someone in the accounting department run and provide these reports daily, weekly or monthly, depending on the relevance, scope and immediacy of them. Chart the differences over the period of time in question, and you’ll notice a variety of fascinating things.

Let me tell you why at a high-end, couture dress manufacturer in New York, they should have been watching their scrap and the cost per dress of manufacturing.

In the world of couture, the profit per piece is generally quite high, especially at this particular dress manufacturer. What started to happen, though, as we later discovered, was that the production manager was taking the overrun of these $5,000 dresses and selling them to discount operations. As this started to work well, he would buy more materials and then write them off as scrap; to make them into dresses and sell them to discount retailers, though, he still had to run the plant which obviously costs money, too.

Had the CEO been receiving regular reports on the, for instance, scrap rate, then he would have noticed something out of whack much earlier and asked the plant manager to reevaluate his processes. Similarly, tracking manufacturing costs could have uncovered this fraudulent activity. As labor and material costs rose while revenue remained steady the CEO should have thought more carefully about the impact on his profit and why it was happening.

If you are making a widget day in and out and you know that the material is x and the labor is y, you need to watch the trends to make sure that the numbers are staying consistent (or inconsistent in your favor).

This applies to all relevant numbers in your business. Regularly monitor and review monetary trends.

Which trends do you monitor? How frequently?


Fraud Prevention Tip: Always Poke Around Your Books

When companies start the CEO or business owner is the one signing all of the checks. That’s just the nature of a start up and a small business.

But after a company grows and other people – CFO, controller, auditor, etc. – are put into the position of check signer, the CEO or a majority shareholder should double-check what’s getting paid.

Just look at a ledger, the checkbook or Quickbooks and see where money is going. Ask questions about that money. How often are we paying for X? What does company Y supply us with? Poke around the books and ask questions.

Silly Expenses

Even if you don’t find fraud, you’ll likely discover unnecessary expenses. I would say the latter is in fact more common in these cases. The reason is that people in Accounts Payable aren’t always informed when a piece of leased equipment is sold or returned or when the paper supplier wasn’t just changed but the first supplier was canceled. That’s because a lot of payables and other bills are just put on autopilot. They’re not checked every month or even every year.

I can’t count the number of times I’ve gone through a company’s expenses line by line, questioning everything with the CEO and the check-signer, and found thousands – if not tens or even hundreds of thousands – worth of expenses being paid that didn’t need to be paid. What a difference that makes to the bottom line of any business, much less one that hasn’t turned a profit in two years.

In one notable case, this routine check uncovered some major fraud.

Un-Silly Fraud

We discovered the fraud while doing a sort in an Excel spreadsheet on all of our vendors’ addresses; we were just trying to figure out freight costs and where we could save money. What we stumbled upon were two vendor companies: one in California and one in Indiana. Each was doing business with a stationary store in Chattanooga, which is where our home office was.

It would have made sense that there were vendors in California and Indiana to attend to our subsidiaries, but what didn’t make sense is that we were sending checks to these companies at a PO Box in Chattanooga – which, I reiterate, is where our headquarters was.

It turns out that the controller had created dummy vendors, theoretically for our subsidiaries in California and Indiana, and he was cutting checks to these dummy vendors for random amounts between $50 and $100 to a PO Box in Chattanooga. He would then go collect all of these checks and cash them in the name of these dummy vendors.

That’s a series of very small transactions that an auditor would never find even if he regularly dipped 20% below his “check everything” number. As a result, over the course of ten years this controller stole over a million dollars.

And again, we only discovered this because the CEO and I were poking around in the books trying to come up with useful ways of extracting unique, money-saving information. What hit us was something suspicious, and that’s why I always encourage you to look into the suspicious.

Slightly Silly Fraud

Another time I was working on a book store that had switched who it was banking with and who held its credit cards. But one of the credit cards wasn’t canceled – a Discover Card – and because it was so routine to pay off this Discover Card, the controllers just kept paying it. No one asked and no one thought about it. As it happens, the guy whose card it was just paid off his entire mortgage on the company (until I got there).

Just do a routine check through all of your transactions and payments. You’re bound to find some juicy things in there.

How often do you poke around your books?